There are four main ways to offer screening.
- The first model is outreach-based either in the community or in a closed/fixed setting like a workplace or institution.
- The second is opportunistic HBV/HCV testing as part of other health care encounters in primary care such as GPs, public health services or sexual health clinics.
- A third option is to extend existing screening programmes such as Tuberculosis screening to include viral hepatitis or extending antenatal HBV screening to include HCV.
- Finally, invitation-based models using municipal or patient registries are a means to invite for screening selected individuals that were born in countries with medium/high viral hepatitis endemicity.
Watch this short animation to learn more about the different ways of screening:
Each model has different infrastructure and resource requirements. Combining with an existing infectious disease screening programme builds on existing infrastructure, including infectious disease specialist staff who may require less training than more generalist medical personnel such as community nurses or GPs. Each model varies in the scope and means to raise awareness in the community and to provide information to people offered testing. For example, public awareness information and education sessions and materials are a key part of community outreach screening models. GPs, community nurses and sexual health clinics are often well trusted and in a unique position to raise awareness of and offer testing opportunistically to their patients who have country of birth-related risk factors. outreach; using a population/patient registry to send invitations; opportunistic in other encounters in health care services; and extending an existing screening programme to include viral hepatitis. The best option depends not only on the population you want to reach but also on the resources (financial, human, physical and time) available.